Foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic: Priorities and directions
Nowadays the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic acts at the international scene as a non-recognized state that proclaimed its sovereignty and independence despite the absence of diplomatic and other relations based on International Law. It makes great difficulties in development of the republic and its participation in the international integration process. Nevertheless, there are some cases of the factual recognition of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; trade, financial and other contacts are made.
The recognition has a declarative significance and it doesn’t influence the existence of the new state. But the recognition of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on the part of the states-members of the international community will be considered to be an act of their own free will.
The foreign policy is determined with long-term goals of the making of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as a democratic state, of providing favourable conditions of the formation of a modern dynamic economy for ensuring worthy life of pridnestrovian people, financial and economic independence of the state, also for the natural enjoying full rights inclusion of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic to the world community.
Pridnestrovian people adopted the Constitution, realizing that they are a part of the world community, “proving their devotion to the values common to all mankind, aspiration for living in peace and harmony with all nations according to generally accepted principles of International Law”. There is a new attitude to the world community – world society approach.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic conveys its determination to be a full member of the world community. It is of great importance for national interests of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic that could be ensured by interaction with other countries. The foreign policy is based on the internationalism (the respect of interests of the world community).
Nowadays possessing equal rights partnership with surrounding countries is being established. The experience of settling conflicts on interstate level. But the policy of interaction must lead to the consolidation of the republic’s status and must not contradict national interests of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The peculiarities of our reforms must be taken into consideration while making contacts with other countries. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic must establish and develop relations to the states that can help us to solve immediate problems of the republic.
The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie can’t be efficient without consolidation of the democratic state, detailed and realistic examination of foreign situations.
Nowadays the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is interested in development of international cooperation and reliable international law and order.
The foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is based on International Law, devotion to UN principles and UN Charter, taking into account the dynamism and development of principles of International Law in moral and political standards of International Pact concerning civil and political rights and International Pact concerning economic, social and cultural rights (1966), Declaration of principles of Concluding Act of the Conference for security and cooperation in Europe (1975), other declarations and resolutions of the General Assembly of UN.
The main principles of modern international law are obligatory for all countries and other subjects of international law irrespective of their participation in creation and recognition of the principles.
The main principles are objectified in the universal agreements, in UN Charter, in particular. All states irrespective of their membership in the UN must act in accordance with the principles. The fact that the principles can be taken as a legal base for regulation of interstate relations in the absence of the direct regulation is of great importance for the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The policy of diktat, political and economic compulsion is not acceptable for the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The sovereign equality of states and their free choice of ways of development are considered to be the inalienable right of any nation.
Priorities of the foreign policy.
The foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is directed to national interests, first of all, retention of independence and sovereignty, strengthening the security in the course of making and developing of Pridnestrovie as a democratic country, providing favourable conditions for the formation of the efficient market economics, inclusion of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in the world community.
The main priorities of the foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic based on the Constitution are:
- consolidation and protection of the independence and sovereignty;
- priority of personal interests, human rights, minority rights;
- development of equal and profitable relations with other countries;
- taking into consideration main characteristics and tendencies of the world development;
- devotion to political-democratic ways of negotiations;
- allowance of using force (within the bounds of international law) for providing the security;
- normalization of relations and full-scale regulation of the conflict of the Republic of Moldova;
- consolidation and development of friendly and profitable contacts with Russia and the Ukraine;
- direction of the strategic goal to equal, friendly and profitable relations of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic with CIS countries;
- development of the partnership with the foreign states, which have a positive influence on solving immediate problems of the republic;
- providing favourable foreign conditions for social and economic reforms that are necessary for the improvement of the social welfare.
The foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is directed to solving economic problems of the republic. These actions are necessary:
- organization of large-scale international cooperation with a view to get the access to the experience, technologies and investments of the leading world countries;
- providing favourable conditions for the international trade, based on the principles of the World Trade Organization;
- reduction of the risk to the minimum in the course of the following integration of Pridnestrovie to the world economics taking into account the necessity of ensuring the economic security of the state;
- political and diplomatic assistance for home producers at foreign markets; support of their interests at foreign markets and counteraction to limitations of their rights;
- ensuring strict observance of the Pridnestrovian legislation by domestic subjects of foreign economic activity;
- formation of a conventional-legal base of economic relations to CIS countries, participation in retention and development of an integrated economic zone within the territory of the former USSR.
The priorities in military and political sphere are the following:
- keeping the state security in a political way;
- brining the military potential into line with the principle of sufficiency for the defense.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic opposed using violation as a way of the world politics. In case of a threat for the state security and the population, for stopping the aggression and other menaces, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic allows using the force in a strict accordance with the principles of international law.
The world without wars and conflicts, the world of democracy and prosperity is the highest priority for us. Every state has the right for a worthy position among other nations and equal political, military, economic and social security.
Realization of these priorities is the essential goal of the foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
Main directions of the foreign policy.
The necessity of the active, pragmatic and well-balanced foreign policy line is conditioned by the position of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in the modern world.
The foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is directed to the making, development and extending of friendly, equal and profitable for both parts relations with states and other subjects of the system of international relations in accordance with own priorities and goals.
The goal of foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is asserting national interests, avoiding confrontation in the relations with the units of the world community, consolidation of the stability and development of positive forms of cooperation in international relations.
Negotiations and interrelations with the Republic of Moldova
Normalization of the relations with the Republic of Moldova is one of the important directions of the foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The immediate task of the negotiations between the Republic of Moldova and Pridnestrovie is prevention of the conflict and regulation of contradictions with the Republic of Moldova.
The intermediate part of Russia, the Ukraine and OSCE and a peace-making operation are used for prevention of the conflict.
The position of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in negotiations is based on the strict observance of all achieved agreements and on the principles of peaceful political regulation, equality of the parts, adoption of agreed resolutions and the denial from using violation.
Long-term interests of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic are making equal contacts profitable for both parts. There is a strong base and objective opportunities for it. But some efforts are needed for solving urgent problems with the view of making confiding conditions and establishing normal interstate cooperation.
Memorandum “Concerning normalization of the relations between the Republic of Moldova and Pridnestrovie” was signed in the presence of the heads of the countries-guarantors (Russia, the Ukraine) and Chairman of OSCE in Moscow in May, 1997. The main principles of interrelations between the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Republic of Moldova were determined.
According to the Memorandum the conflict between the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Republic of Moldova must be settled in a peaceful political way with a sense of responsibility for ensuring civil peace, the interethnic accord and consolidation of the stability and safety in this region of Europe. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic will settle any disagreements in the process of normalization of the relations with the Republic of Moldova only in a peaceful way, by means of negotiations and consultations with the assistance and mediation of the countries-guarantors (Russia and the Ukraine) and international organizations (OSCE, CIS). The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic establishes state legal relations with the Republic of Moldova within the borders of a single state (Moldavian SSR of January 1990), taking into account existing political and social-economic real facts and achieved agreements. There is a necessity of elaboration of a phased program of making and realization of state legal relations. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is eager to renovate relations with the Republic of Moldova on the basis of partnership, equality, mutual respect and stable agreements. The major goal of the foreign policy in this direction is elaboration of the Document, based on the principles of agreements, determining main lines of interrelations and the status of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Republic of Moldova being parts of an integrated state, including demarcation and delegating authorities. The points concerning formation of a new state within the bounds of a single economic, defence, legal, social and informative zone must be fixed there. The legal zone of an integrated state must be based on the Constitutional Act, adopted by the subjects of an integrated state. Delegating and demarcation of authority between them must be based on the mutual agreement. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is ready to make some amendments to the existing legislation with the view of harmonization of national law and state law. The economic zone of the integrated state will be based on the principles of the market economics and equality of different forms of property. The subjects of interstate association pursue a coordinated military policy. The integrated state is obliged to proclaim the eternal neutrality and non-participation in military alliances. The citizenship in the new state will be defined according to the agreement of the parts. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic considers the formation of the interstate association with the Republic of Moldova as an integrated state to be a real way for settling the existing contradictions. The integrated state can be formed only by the free will of people of both states, directed to the peaceful coexistence. Keeping peace, mutual confidence and cooperation, stable social and economic development of the parts of the integrated state, improvement of the social welfare and assistance in ensuring of security of Europe are main goals of formation of the interstate association with the Republic of Moldova. The existing international experience of peaceful regulation and precedents of settling conflicts on a new basis of the conception of interstate association must be taking into consideration while elaborating a concrete model of state legal relations between Pridnestrovie and the Republic of Moldova. There is also a necessity of elaboration and conclusion of the Agreement concerning guarantees that will make it impossible to resume the conflict and to use an economic blockade and other forms of pressure. There must be provisions concerning mutual and external political, economic, military, social, cultural and other guarantees. With the view of removing obstacles for normal economic relations between Moldova and Pridnestrovie, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic stands out for mutual solving problems of the economic development, considering the fact that the efficient use of the potential of Moldova and Pridnestrovie is possible on the base of equal trade and economic cooperation profitable for both parts without the red tape. The agreement concluded on the intergovernmental level concerning the main principles of trade and economic cooperation must be basic in this field. In the case of unilateral actions of the Republic of Moldova, restraining the interests of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic or avoiding obligations the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic will stand up for its interests according to the principles of international law and using potentialities of states-guarantors, OSCE and CIS, also probable adequate answering steps.
Interrelations with the Russian federation.
Special relations with the Russian Federation are of great importance for the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The progress was achieved in stabilisation of relations between Moldova and Pridnestrovie owing to an active intermediary part of Russia in negotiations. Russia played a vital part in stopping the armed conflict, between the Republic of Moldova and the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in 1992, organisation and carrying out a peace-making operation. Russia bears responsibility for keeping the fragile peace in Pridnestrovie. Russian Federation is the guarantor and peace-maker in relations of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic with the Republic of Moldova for establishing peace and stability in the region.
The status of Russia as a state-guarantor was fixed in the political agreement between the Russian Federation and Moldova. It could have a positive influence on the relations between the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Republic of Moldova, could make the atmosphere of understanding and cooperation.
It is necessary to include a provision concerning the following dislocation of Russian armed forces as a part of peace-making forces in the agreement about keeping peace and excluding the possibility of the armed or any other conflict in Pridnestrovie.
The precise and consistent position of the Russian Federation will be the corner-stone of the system of safety guarantees, it will be impossible to keep long-lasting peace without it.
The Russian Federation is the main economic partner of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. In this connection the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic tries to expand economic relations with Russia, to stimulate the activity of entrepreneurs of Russia and Pridnestrovie with the view of integration of economics and development of trade and economic interrelations through consolidation of the legal basis of bilateral relations.
The intergovernmental agreement concerning main principles of trade and economic cooperation must be the basic document of Russian-Pridnestrovian economic relations. The problems concerning restructuring debts, gas tariffs (supplied by Russia to Pridnestrovie), cooperation in the field of export and transit of electric power, etc must be solved. The problem of investments and guarantees for activity of investors is of great importance for the republic, the assistance of Russia is necessary for solving it.
The questions of the entry of Pridnestrovian educational institutions into the educational system of Russia and recognition of diplomas of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic are essential, so it’s necessary to sign the Intergovernmental agreement concerning cooperation in the field of education.
The conclusion of the agreement with the Russian Federation concerning recognition of the documents (birth certificates; economic certificates and contracts; passports, identity cards) issued by competent organs of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, is of great political importance.
The necessity of the immediate opening of the permanent consulate in Pridnestrovie is conditioned by the steady increase in the number of the citizens of the Russian Federation, living in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the absence of the proper level of the consular service.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is connected with Russia in a historical and cultural way. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is eager to keep and develop political, economic, cultural and spiritual community with Russia.
Interrelations with the Ukraine.
The relations with the Ukraine are of exceptional importance for the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, taking into consideration the peculiarities of the historical development, geopolitical position and the intermediary part of the Ukraine as a state-guarantor in negotiations between Pridnestrovie and Moldova.
The political stability and success of economic reforms in Pridnestrovie depend on the character of these contacts. Development of stable, friendly relations with the Ukraine can help to make favourable conditions for internal economic reforms in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
Development and expansion of contacts, the active economic and political cooperation between the Ukraine and Pridnestrovie are important for the consolidation of statehood of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and its positions at the international scene.
It’s worth marking that the Ukraine takes an active part in negotiations on the level of experts and Presidents. It is the participant of signing all agreements; it acts as a guarantor of execution of achieved agreements in all spheres, including a military one. The Ukrainian military watchers take part in the peace-making process and interact with the Integrated Control Commission.
According to Odessa agreements the Ukraine undertook to take part in the improvement of peace-making activity and to send Ukrainian peace-makers to the security zone.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic stands up for the expansion of Ukrainian-Pridnestrovian economic relations and close cooperation in the field of customs matters, culture, education.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic will cooperate with the Ukraine and its regions, especially, frontier areas.
The delimitation of the Pridnestrovian-Ukrainian border, the simplified crossing the border by our citizens irrespective of their places of residence and other customs matters are of great importance for bilateral cooperation.
There is an acute necessity for opening diplomatic representatives of the Ukraine, including the permanent consulate, taking into consideration the fact that more than 300,000 Ukrainians live in Pridnestrovie, also the character of historical contacts and existing relations.
Interrelations with CIS countries.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic considers the relations with the states of CIS to be an important factor for involving the republic into world political and economic integrated process.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and CIS have common interpretation of values of the world civilization and communities of interests.
Making economic and other contacts on the international legal base is the main condition for ensuring national interests of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in home and foreign policy.
Development of economic cooperation profitable for both parts is the main goal of interrelations with CIS. It’s necessary to obtain the participation in the economic, customs and payments alliance.
The contacts of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic with CIS must become full-scale, interstate relations and provide cooperation in all fields.
It’s necessary to keep viable economic relations, to solve problems of money circulation, legal regulation of economic relations between enterprises of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and their partners from CIS, to keep and consolidate scientific and technical potential, cultural cooperation, to keep law and order, to prevent crime, to get assistance in criminal and civil cases for overcoming social crisis in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and CIS.
With the view of participation in international cultural and scientific life the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic will continue developing relations with cultural, scientific and educational institutions of the Russian Federation, the Ukraine, Byelorussia and Moldova. It’s important to elaborate political agreements with these states.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic keeps friendly relations with the states that are on the way to recognition. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is ready to develop these relations to the Republic Abkhazia, the Nagornaya Karabahskaya Republic and the Republic South Osetia, trying to overcome conflict situations in the post Soviet area and to solve analogous problems together with them.
The establishment of the Consultative Council of experts and the Conference of ministers of foreign affairs of the Republic Abkhazia, the Nagornaya Karabahskaya Republic, the Republic South Osetia and the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was a significant factor, stimulating economic, cultural and other contacts, coordination of international relations.
Interrelations with foreign countries.
The foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic towards foreign countries is based on the mutual respect and cooperation profitable for both parts.
The relations of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic with foreign states, especially, European countries, are of great importance for joining the community of democratic states, for ensuring security. Political and economic relations of Pridnestrovie with foreign states must be based on bilateral interaction and cooperation within the bounds of international organizations and forums.
The main goal of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on this stage of its development (in the process of gaining a firm hold at the international scene as a full member of the international system, the state-member of the international community) is making and consolidating the partnership with foreign states. In future it will be used for strengthening the security of the republic, solving domestic problems, joining the system of European market and the world economy.
There is a necessity of establishing and consolidating stable interstate relations to all European countries. The strategic task is establishing at the international scene as economically and politically independent state, so it’s very important to make contacts with the most developed and influential states in the world.
It’s very important to prove the reality of our existence, the stability of our position in disputing our interests, to demonstrate our peaceable policy, our willingness to live in peace and harmony with all countries and nations, our devotion to democratic principles, our willingness to cooperate with other states and to take part in the world integration.
It’s necessary to cooperate closely with foreign states for joining the world democratic community and global economic relations, for providing political, financial, technical and expert support of our economic reforms.
Nowadays there is a lack of diplomatic relations to almost all countries, contacts are limited. In this connection the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic has political relations with other countries by means of their diplomatic representatives at the territory of Russia, Moldova and the Ukraine.
Interrelations with international organizations.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic will continue establishing interstate relations within the bounds of international organizations and using the experience of these organizations for economic, scientific, technical and cultural development. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is eager to join some organizations on the basis of sovereign equality of states-participants.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic cooperates with OSCE with the view of participation in strengthening the regional security and settling the problems of war and political stability in Europe, constructive interstate cooperation in economic, technical, cultural and humane spheres. OSCE is a very important organization for keeping peace and security. Acting through the permanent mission in Moldova, OSCE (including 55 countries) played an intermediary part in negotiations. Having assumed obligations of assistance for keeping agreements, it still goes on playing a vital part in normalization of relations.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is eager for joining OSCE; it will be conducive to the integration of Pridnestrovie into European zone. Nowadays OSCE is the only channel for involving the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic into European affairs. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic renders all-round assistance for the activity of OSCE within the republic.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic has permanent contacts with delegations of the Parliamentary Assemblies of the European Council and OSCE. The representatives have an opportunity of getting acquainted with the real state of affairs concerning observance of human rights in Pridnestrovie and the course of negotiations between the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Republic of Moldova.
The aspiration for European integration and willingness for participation in the initiative of the European Community for stability and security in South-Eastern Europe are the main aspects of the foreign policy.
As the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is situated near the Black Sea and the Danube, it plans to act within the limits of the Black Sea economic cooperation.
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic also intends to develop cooperation with international humane organizations.
The extension of NATO and approaching our borders can have a negative influence on the stability and safety in this part of Europe in the absence of the final settlement of the conflict between the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Republic of Moldova.
Formation and implementation of the foreign policy of The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The foreign policy of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is under the supervision of the President of the republic, who represents the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in international relations as the head of the state.
The Supreme Soviet of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic confirms the Conception of the foreign policy, make conditions for putting it into practice, adopting and ratifying necessary intrastate and interstate acts, also does legislative work concerning legal guarantee of the foreign policy line of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and acquitting its international liabilities.
The ministry of foreign affairs as the executive body, directing relations of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic to foreign states and international organizations, implements the foreign policy line.
The ministry of foreign affairs must assist coordinated interaction of the executive bodies with the legislative and judicial bodies with a view to ensure the observance of the principle of the foreign policy unity and acquitting international liabilities of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
The ministry of foreign affairs is the major body in the field of relations with foreign countries and international organizations that controls the acquittal of international liabilities.
Opening of representatives and their functioning in foreign states and at the international organizations, making favourable conditions, including affording immunities and privileges, for opening of representatives of foreign countries and international organizations and their functioning within the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic will assist the efficient implementation of the foreign policy line.
While preparing resolutions concerning the foreign policy line the executive bodies interact with Pridnestrovian, foreign and international non-governmental organizations. It answers the purpose of building civil society and ensuring maximum support of the state foreign policy by civilians.
The consistent foreign policy will make favourable conditions for development of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as a sovereign, democratic state functioning in accordance with law and the subject of the international cooperation possessing equal rights.